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Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)

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What is Bluetooth Low Energy?

This series of blogs on BLE, is for anyone who is going to start with Bluetooth Low Energy. Bluetooth energy comes under the short range wireless communication protocols of IoT. So lets start by understanding what is BLE.

Bluetooth is a wireless communication protocol that is started as a cable replacement technology to replace wires in devices like mouse, keyboards and etc. It operates at 2.4Ghz in unlicensed ISM frequency brand. Their are two types of Bluetooth devices: one is Bluetooth Classic(BR/EDR) and Bluetooth Low Energy.

Bluetooth versions from Version 1.0 to 3.0 are referred as Bluetooth Classic and from 4.0 to latest version 5.2 are referred as Bluetooth Low Energy(BLE). Bluetooth protocol is backwards compatible.

Bluetooth Classic technology is developed as a wireless standard allowing cables to be replaced connecting portable and fixed electronic devices, but it cannot achieve extreme level of battery life because of its fast hopping, connection oriented behaviours and relatively complex connection. Bluetooth Classic further has Basic Rate mode(V1), Enhanced Data Rate mode(V2) and High Speed mode(v3). In this article we will not dwell much into the Bluetooth Classic, our discussion area will be confined to Bluetooth low Energy.

BLE stands for Bluetooth Low Energy, which has been created for the purpose of transmitting very small packets of data at a time, while consuming significantly less power then Bluetooth Classic.

Now for working with any wireless communication protocol, their are 2 important concepts that have to be understood for it. Its Communication Protocol Architecture and Communication protocol Stack( it is the firmware implementation of the Architecture). So for proceeding with BLE, we will first understand Its architecture, about the terms like GATT,GAP, HCI and how does Bluetooth low energy works and then further will understand its stack on Nordiac devices.

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